Negation is basically puts don’t or did not into the sentence, making it negative (hence the name).
You can negate most sentences with
nem, it means no, or not. Nem almost always starts at the beginning of the sentence.
If the same subject negates more verbs in a sentence,
sem is used instead. The use of
sem can also be used with pronouns for emphasis.
Consider this scenario:
It should be noted that English treats the sentence as one whole value whereas Hungarian treats the sentence as a series of values. If you want to negate the sentence, every part of the sentence is negated.
tud are both verbs that can be used as the equivalent to know.
ismer has connotations of possesing knowledge whereas
tud has connotations of possessing skills and skillsets (hence, why tud also means can, in the sense of ability).
van is the verb for existence. In Hungarian,
nincs/nincsen is used to negate a noun’s existence (and
nincsenek for negating multiple nouns). Likewise with
sincs is used as a further negation to really emphasise the lack of existence.
nincs is used for the present tense,
nem volt and
nem lesz are used for the past and future respectively.
Ha van Balrog, miért nincsen Jobbrog? (Free image by Yukatan, fetched from Wikimedia Commons)
If there is a Balrog/Leftrog, why is there no Rightrog?
Jobb - right
With the imperative and subjunctive mood, the negation becomes
ne is is used instead of
se. This concept will be expanded upon in later sections.
Tedd, vagy ne tedd, de ne próbáld! - Yoda, Star Wars V (Original Image)
Do or do not, but do not try!
It isn’t uncommon to ask questions in the negative, especially if they are yes or no questions.
Consider these situations, Barnabás could respond with the following:
de (but) is used to counter a negative question.
Dehogy is used to counter a positive question whereas
dehogynem/dehogynincs counters a negative question. They can be used for more passion in a reply. An
is is added if it is used as a follow up for more emphasis.
Jani and Pisti are talking, try to work out what they are saying! Source: